General Use Recommendations


Some general statements apply to all fungicides used in bananas:

  • For a mixture of non-cross-resistant partners to be effective in a resistance management strategy the rate of each component must be sufficient to provide satisfactory control when used alone at the same rate. 
  • The recommended label rate of each mixture component should be respected. 
  • Protectant (e. g. multi site) fungicides are considered to be a very valuable and necessary tool for banana black sigatoka control programs and resistance management. 
  • Synchronisation of applications of fungicides from the same class can help in managing resistance.
  • Alternative applications methods: injection into the plant or ground localized application using fungicides at high risk of resistance (for example. DMI, QoI, SDHI) are considered to pose a risk to the efficacy of foliar applications because of the additional selection pressure. These technologies are likely to increase the resistance risk for any of the fungicides used.

Specific Recommendations by FRAC Group


These recommendations are specific recommendations by FRAC group and should be used in ADDITION to the general use recommendations to manage resistance development. These are excerpted from the minutes of annual meeting of the WG.

For a table summarizing the FRAC Banana Guidelines listed below, please see  Banana FRAC Guidelines 2014 Summary Table.

Demethylation inhibitors (DMIs)


All the active ingredients belonging to the DMI class of fungicides are considered to be a single product group, amongst which there is in general some degree of cross resistance. Mixtures of two or more DMIs can be applied to provide good biological efficacy; however, they do not provide an anti resistance strategy and must be treated as a solo DMI for resistance management.

The following guidelines are recommended for the use of DMI fungicides against black sigatoka in banana:

  • DMIs should be used only in mixtures with other, non-cross resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates.
  •  DMI fungicides are recommended to be used in full alternation with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action. 
  • Apply a maximum of 8 applications containing DMI fungicides, but not more than 50% of the total number of sprays. 
  • Applications containing DMI fungicides should preferably start at the onset of the annual disease progress curve.

Amines


Amine fungicides should be applied according to the following guidelines against black sigatoka in banana:

  • Amine fungicides can be used solo or in mixtures, the application in mixtures is preferred. 
  • A maximum of 2 consecutive sprays (block) containing amine fungicides can be used. Full alternation of amines with other, non-cross resistant modes of action is preferred. 
  • Apply a maximum of 15 applications containing amine fungicides, but not more than 50% of the total number of sprays.

Qo inhibitors (QoIs)


For active ingredients belonging to the QoIs class of fungicides, the following use guidelines against black sigatoka are given:

  • Apply QoI fungicides only in mixtures with other, non-cross resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates for black sigatoka control. 
  • Apply QoI fungicides in full alternation with other, non-cross resistant modes of action. No consecutive QoI-applications should be applied. 
  • Apply a maximum of 3 applications containing QoI fungicides but not more than 33% of the total number of sprays. 
  • Applications containing QoI fungicides should preferably start at the onset of the annual disease progress curve and be applied at times of lower disease pressure.
  • Applications should be separated by at least 3 months of a QoI-free period.

Anilinopyrimidines (APs)


Anilinopyrimidine fungicides should be applied according to the following guidelines against black sigatoka in banana:

  • AP fungicides should be applied only in mixtures with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates. 
  • AP fungicides should be used in full alternation with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates. Consecutive or so-called “block” applications are not recommended.
  • Apply a maximum of 8 applications containing AP fungicides but not more than 50% of the total number of sprays.

Benzimidazoles (BCMs)


Benzimidazole fungicides should be applied according to the following guidelines against black sigatoka in banana:

  • Apply BCM fungicides only in mixtures with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates.
  • BCM fungicides should be used in full alternation with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action. No consecutive BCM-applications (blocks) should be applied. 
  • Apply a maximum of 3 applications containing BCM fungicides but not more than 33% of the total number of sprays. 
  • Applications containing BCM fungicides should preferably start at the onset of the annual disease progress curve and be applied at times of lower disease pressure. 
  • Applications should be separated by at least 3 months of a BCM-free period.

SDHI fungicides


SDHI fungicides should be applied according to the following guidelines against black sigatoka in banana:

  • Apply SDHI fungicides only in mixtures with other, non-cross resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates. 
  • SDHI fungicides should be used in full alternation with other, non-cross resistant modes of action. No consecutive SDHI-applications (blocks) should be applied. 
  • Apply a maximum of 3 applications containing SDHI fungicides but not more than 33% of the total number of sprays. 
  • Applications containing SDHI fungicides should preferably start at the onset of the annual disease progress curve and be applied at times of lower disease pressure. 
  • Applications should be separated by at least 3 months of a SDHI-free period.
Soil treatment of SDHIs for nematicidal use:
  • Where an SDHI is used as a soil drench for nematode control then, as a precautionary measure, it should be counted as one of the permitted SDHI applications.
  • Use another MoA for the first foliar fungicide application providing satisfactory disease control against M. fijiensis within the first 7 days after the soil drench application. 
  • Continue foliar applications with alternating MoAs for the remaining growing period as stated above for the fungicidal application of SDHIs.

Guanidines


Guanidines should be applied according to the following guidelines against black sigatoka in banana:

  • Apply guanidine fungicides only in mixtures with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates. 
  • Guanidines should to be used in full alternation with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action. No consecutive Guanidine-applications (blocks) should be applied. 
  • Apply a maximum of 6 applications containing Guanidine fungicides but not more than 33% of the total number of sprays. 
  • Applications containing Guanidine fungicides should preferably start at the onset of the annual disease progress curve and be applied at times of lower disease pressure. 
  • Applications should be separated by at least 6 weeks of a Guanidine-free period.

N-Phenylcarbamates


N-Phenylcarbamates fungicides should be applied according to the following guidelines against black sigatoka in banana:

  • Apply N-Phenylcarbamates fungicides only in mixtures with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action, all partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates. 
  • N-Phenylcarbamates fungicides should be used in full alternation with other, non-cross-resistant modes of action. No consecutive N-Phenylcarbamates-applications (blocks) should be applied. 
  • Apply a maximum of 3 applications containing N-Phenylcarbamate fungicides but not more than 33% of the total number of sprays. 
  • Applications containing N-Phenylcarbamate fungicides should preferably start at the onset of the annual disease progress curve and be applied at times of lower disease pressure. 
  • Applications should be separated by at least 3 months of a N-Phenylcarbamates - free period.

Multi sites


Multi site fungicides ( Mancozeb, Chlorothalonil, Propineb, Thiram, Captan, Metiram, and other fungicides of low resistance risk) can be applied for control of black sigatoka in the following way:

  • Mutli site fungicides can be used solo or in mixtures with partners at manufacturers’ recommended effective rates. There are no limitations or restrictions concerning the number of applications, the timing or the sequence as long as it is within the limits of the manufacturers'  labels.

WG Meeting Minutes


At the annual meeting, the working group reviews the current year's monitoring results and decides whether they require changes be made to the next year's use recommendations.  The minutes of those meetings are below.

 

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Dr. Andreas Mehl
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Bayer AG, Crop Science Division
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E-Mail: Dr. Andreas Mehl