Fungicide Resistance Action Committee

About FRAC

FRAC is a Specialist Technical Group of CropLife International (CLI; Formerly Global Crop Protection Federation, GCPF). As such, we work within the legal frame work defined by CLI and take care to ensure that strict anti-trust guidelines are observed.



The purpose of FRAC is to provide fungicide resistance management guidelines to prolong the effectiveness of "at risk" fungicides and to limit crop losses should resistance occur.

The main aims of FRAC are to:

  1. Identify existing and potential fungicide resistance problems.
  2. Collate information and distribute it to those involved with fungicide research, distribution, registration and use.
  3. Provide guidelines and advice on the use of fungicides to reduce the risk of resistance developing, and to manage it should it occur.
  4. Recommend procedures for use in fungicide resistance studies.
  5. Stimulate open links and collaborations with universities, government agencies, advisors, extension workers, distributors and farmers.

FRAC Guidelines

FRAC Guidelines for resistance management are produced by the individual FRAC Working Groups and Expert Fora. These Guidelines provide information on how to use specific areas of fungicide chemistry for control of plant diseases on various crops while maintaining a good anti-resistance strategy.

The Guidelines should be regarded as the minimum resistance management strategy required, and it is possible that a more stringent strategy should be used in individual cases. FRAC recommends that you seek advice from your local resistance management organisation (e.g. local country FRAC or FRAG), your local crop advisor or extension agent, or the manufacturer or distributor of the product to see if a more restrictive strategy is recommended.

The FRAC Guidelines deal only with areas of fungicide chemistry. FRAC is not allowed to make recommendations for the use of individual products. If you require advice on which active ingredients to use in your disease control programme, please consult your local crop advisor or extension agent, or the distributor or manufacturer of potential products.


Fungicides have become an integral part of efficient food production. The loss of a fungicide to agriculture through resistance is a problem that affects us all. It may lead to unexpected and costly crop losses to farmers causing local shortages and increased food prices. Manufacturers lose revenue vital to funding the enormous development costs of new products. Without reinvestment there would be no new compounds. This would cause serious disease management problems and endanger the world food supply.

The problem of resistance has increased since the advent of highly effective compounds with specific sites of action. Although representing marked improvements in performance, including systemic and therapeutic properties, experience has shown that these compounds may be prone to resistance. As reliance on these fungicides grows, action is required to safeguard their effectiveness.

Industry recognises its responsibilityin safeguarding new chemistries that are brought to market. Through FRAC and its Working Groups, companies are striving to establish more effective communications to alert all those involved in the research, production, marketing, registration and use of fungicides to the problems of resistance.

With enlightened stakeholders, effective strategies can be conceived and adopted. Cooperative action is essential if we are to preserve the option of chemical disease control for our crops.

History of FRAC

FRAC and its Working Groups originated as a result of a course on fungicide resistance in 1980, and developed at an industry seminar in Brussels in 1981. 

The seminar attracted 68 scientists and marketing managers from 35 major agrochemical companies worldwide. At the meeting it was apparent that there was an urgent need for collaboration. The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee was thus born as an organisation designed to discuss resistance problems and formulate plans for cooperative efforts to avoid or manage fungicide resistance. FRAC became incorporated within GIFAP, the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products. This organisation was later renamed Global Crop Protection Federation (GCPF). From 2000 to 2001, GCPF evolved into CropLife International, a new global federation to represent the plant science industry.

Working Groups for benzimidazoles, dicarboximides, demethylation inhibitors (DMI's) and phenylamides were organised and companies were soon cooperating in monitoring studies and other technical projects. Fungicide use guidelines designed to reduce the risk of resistance developing or to manage it where present, were produced and have since been refined as knowledge grew. The DMI Working Group was expanded to cover all Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors, and renamed the SBI Fungicides Working Group.

The introduction of the anilinopyrimidines in 1995 and STAR fungicides (Strobilurin Type Action and Resistance) in 1997 (later renamed QoI Fungicides Working Group) and more recently the introduction of new carboxylic acid amides (CAA fungicides) and Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors (SDHI fungicides) led to the formation of working groups for these new areas.

In comparison to the above-mentioned “AI-based” working groups, the Banana Working Group deals with a single crop and several chemical groups. The Banana Working Group, which was created in 2003, is comprised of banana grower associations, research institutions and chemical manufacturers. The objectives of this working group are similar to those of the other FRAC groups.

In 2003 the Benzimidazole, Dicarboximide and Phenylamide Working Groups were reorganized as Expert Fora. These Fora are constructed as informal networks of technical experts around the world. They provide a general global overview of the resistance situation for these groups and are updated on an "as needed" basis as new information becomes available.


FRAC Constitution available for download:


FRAC Member companies:

Member companies 2019


Dr. Andreas Goertz

Bayer AG,
Crop Science Division

Dr. Courtney Gallup
FRAC Communication Officer

Corteva Agriscience
Crop Protection Discovery & Development

Dr. Dietrich Hermann
FRAC Engagement Officer