Introduction


The activity of dicarboximide fungicides was first reported in the early 1970's (Fujinami et al. 1971) with the three key commercial products being introduced within three years; iprodione (Lacroix et al. 1974), vinclozolin (Pommer & Mangold 1975) and procymidone (Hisada et al. 1977). They are typically protectant fungicides and although some claims to systemicity have been made (Hisada et al. 1977) they are best regarded as protectant materials.

Compared to many other classes of fungicide their activity spectrum is relatively narrow, but includes species from the following genera: Botrytis, Sclerotinia, Sclerotium, Monilinia, Alternaria, Phoma, Didymella, Rhizoctonia, Laetisaria (Corticium). Current actives on the market are iprodione, vinclozolin and procymidone. They are sold alone and as components of many co-formulated mixtures. 

Code Target site of action Group name Chemical group Common name Comments
2 MAP/Histidine-Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1) Dicarbox-amides Dicarbox-amides chlozinolate iprodione procymidone vinclozilin Resistance common in Botrytis and some other pathogens. Several mutations in OS-1, mostly I356S.

Cross resistance common between the group members

Medium to high risk. See FRAC Dicarboximide Guidelines for resistance management.

References


Fujinami, A., Ozaki, K., Yamamoto, S. (1971) Studies on biological activity of cyclic amide compounds. Part 1. Antimicrobial activity of 3-phenyloxazolidine-2,4-diones and related compounds. Agric. Biol. Chem 35 , 1707 – 1719.

Hisada, Y., Kato, T., Kawase, Y. (1977) Systemic movements in cucumber plants and control of cucumber gray mould by a new fungicide, S-7131. Netherl. J. Plant Pathol. 83, 71 – 78.

Lacroix, L., Bic, C., Burgaud, L., Guillot, M., Leblanc, R., Riottot, R., Sauli, M. (1974) Etude des propriétés antifongiques d'une nouvelle famille des dérivés de l'hydantoine et en particulier du 26019 R.P. Phytiatrie-Phytopharmacie 23 , 165 – 174.

Pommer, E-H., Mangold, D. (1975) Vinclozolin (BAS 352F) ein neuer Wirkstoff zur Bekämpfung von Botrytis cinerea. Meded. Fak. Landbouwwet. Rijksuniv. Gent 40 , 713 – 722.

Yamaguchi, I., Fujimura, M. (2005) Recent topics on action mechanisms of fungicides. Journal of Pesticide Science 30, 67 – 74.

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